The course will trace the rise and spread of women's struggles from mid-1970s onwards. Starting from the first national crisis and the birth of women’s studies, the course will identify how feminist thoughts, interdisciplinary literature, outreach, activism and advocacy have been an integral part of the making of women’s studies. India has witnessed several social movements where women have played a crucial role in different capacities and over different time periods, for resistance and change in the structural and socio-economic inequalities that have oppressed women. While some of these movements resulted in positive outcomes in policy making, some issues have prevailed despite policy changes. Contemporary socio-economic changes have brought about new challenges to the women’s movement. The course will identify the gender issues taken up by the contemporary women’s groups, explain the development agenda of feminists in India, identify the future feminist challenges in India and the emerging LGBT issues and groups and examine the successes of feminists movements in India. The course will have a group discussion or debate on contemporary gender issues and future pathways in India.

University of Hyderabad - College for Integrated Studies

IMA - Course Title: SL 352 - Work and Organizations

Semester VI, Credits – 4                                                                                                                               Jan -April

This is an introductory course on the Sociology of Work and Organizations. There have been radical changes in work and organizations since the Industrial Revolution and Globalization. The course focuses on the organization of work, control and co-ordination in organizational settings with different approaches to understand the same.

1.    Work, Definition, Forms, Historical transformation: Pre industrial, Industrial, Service work, Work & Alienation, Gendered Division of labour, Concepts of Deskilling, Upskilling, Industrial work, Service work

2.    Formal Organizations -  Organizations as rational systems natural systems and open systems

3.    Approaches to the study of Organizations - Scientific Management – F.W. Taylor, Human relations, Hawthorne studies, Contingency approach

4.    Organizational Processes, Typologies of organizations Leadership, Motivation, Communication, Power & authority, Leadership

5.    Industrial relations

6.    Globalization & work – Call center work

7.    Culture and Organizations

8.    Emotional labour, McDonaldization



1.       Blau, M. Peter. and Scott, W. Richard. 1977. Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul

2.      Champion, J. Dean. 1975. The Sociology of Organizations. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.

3.       Clegg, Stewart and Dunkerley, David. 1980. Organization, Class and Control. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

4.       Edgell, Stephen.  2012. The Sociology of Work: Continuity and Change in Paid and Unpaid Work.  London: Sage.

5.       Etzioni, Amitai. Ed.1961. A Sociological Reader in Complex Organizations. New York: Holt, Rienhart and Winston Inc.

  1. Janardhan, V. Arguing for 'Industrial Relations': Journey to a Lost World. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 38, No. 31 (Aug. 2-8, 2003), pp. 3254-3260

7.       Robbins, P. Stephen. 1983. Organization Theory: The Structure and Design of Organizations. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

8.       Scott, W. Richard. 1998. Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

9.       Strangleman, Tim and Warren, Tracey.  2008. Work and Society: Sociological Approaches, Themes and Methods. New York: Routledge.


Course Instructor: Dr. C. Naga Lakshmi

The objective of the course is to familiarize the students with the current issues and debates concerning development. The concept of development has had several connotations, starting from incessant pre-occupation with economic growth during the years following independence to the current engagement with the human and social development with active inclusion of local communities in the process. The course attempts to understand the current practices of development by an analysis of the approaches, agencies and issues involved in it.

Department of Sociology, University of Hyderabad

MA Sociology Optional Course on: Environmental Sociology


Optional Course                                                                                     Course Instructor: Satyapriya Rout

Semester – III (July – December)                                                         E-mail:



Course Description:

Human societies throughout history have shared an intrinsic relation with nature. Environmental factors always shape social phenomena, and human societies inevitably alter natural environment. In the last three to four decades, a growing number of sociologists have recognised this important linkage between the natural and social worlds, and ‘Environmental Sociology’ has emerged as a discipline within Sociology to integrate these connections systematically into social science research. In this broader context, this course aims to explore the relationship between human society and the larger natural environment, of which it is a part of. It is now acknowledged that environmental issues are inevitably social issues, and these can be understood by an examination of their social roots. The course therefore attempts to understand the social roots of ecological problems, which modern societies of the world face today. It unveils the social responses to the environmental problems that emerged in the west as well as the third world societies. Besides, it examines the emergence of the concept of sustainable development, environmental conflicts and movements, and various approaches to resource use as varied responses to environmental risks. The course gives due importance to environmental issues, concerns and debates that have emerged in India in recent years, and discusses the environmental history and the rise of environmentalism in India.


Course Objective:

The course aims to provide the students with a sound conceptual, theoretical and empirical background to the issues of environment, sustainable development and resource management; and prepare them for further research in the area. To be specific, the course intends to enhance the ability of the students to:

·       Critically engage with the main concepts, theories, debates and empirical practices on environment society interactions

·       Appropriately apply different theories and methodologies of research in different contexts relevant to environment and sustainable development

·       Develop a wider understanding of current theoretical and empirical debate on environmental movements and sustainable resource management practices


Course Modules and Reading List (Readings will be selected from the list given)

Module 1: Environmental Sociology as a Field of inquiry

·       Environment in Classical Sociological Tradition – Durkheim, Marx and Weber

·       Environmental Change and emergence of ‘Environmental Sociology’

·       Environmental Sociology as a Field of inquiry in India


Suggested Readings:

1.       Dunlap, Riley E. and William Catton. 1979. “Environmental Sociology”. Annual Review of Sociology, 5: 243-273.

2.       Catton, Willam and R E Dunlap. “Environmental Sociology: New Paradigm”. The American Sociologist, 13 (February): 41 – 49.

3.       Riley E. Dunlap and William R. Catton, Jr. 1994. “Struggling with Human Exemptionalism: The Rise, Decline, and Revitalization of Environmental Sociology”. The American Sociologist. 25: 5-30.

4.       Buttel, Frederick H. 1987. “New Directions in Environmental Sociology”. Annual Review of Sociology. 13: 465 – 488.

5.       Murphy, Raymond. 1995. “Sociology as if Nature Did Not Matter: an Ecological Critique”. The British Journal of Sociology. 46 (4): 688 – 707.

6.       Foster, John Bellamy. 1999. “Marx’s Theory of Metabolic Rift: Classical Foundations of Environmental Sociology”. American Journal of Sociology. 105 (2): 366 – 405.

7.       Baviskar, Amita. 1997. ‘Ecology and Development in India: A Field and its Future’. Sociological Bulletin. 46 (2): 193-207.

8.       Munshi, Indra. 2000. ‘Environment in Sociological Theory’. Sociological Bulletin. 49 (2): 253 – 266.


Module 2: Theoretical Approaches to Environmental Sociology

·       Explanations for Environmental Degradation – Ecological and Political-economic

·       Modernism: Environmental Degradation and/or Improvement – Risk Society, Reflexive and Ecological Modernization

·       Perspectives and Debates in Environmental Sociology –

o   Natural Resource Sociology, Human Exemptionalism and Environmental Sociology

o   The Treadmill of Production

o   Realism Vs. Constructionism,


Suggested Readings:


1.       Bech, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.

2.       York, Richard; Eugene A. Rosa and Thomas Dietz. 2003. “Footprints on the Earth: The Environmental Consequences of Modernity”. American Sociological Review. 68 (2): 279-300.

3.       Alario, Margarita and William Freudenburg. 2003. “The Paradoxes of Modernity: Scientific Advances, Environmental Problems, and Risks to theSocial Fabric”? Sociological Forum. 18 (2): 193-214.

4.       Barry, John. 2005. “Ecological Modernisation”. In John S. Dryzek and David Schlosberg (ed.) Debating the Earth: The Environmental Politics Reader. Clarendon: Oxford University Press.

5.       Mol, Arthur P.J. 1996. “Ecological Modernisation and Institutional Reflexivity: Environmental Reform in the late modern age”. Environmental Politics. 5:302 – 23.

6.       Buttel, Frederick H. 2000. “Ecological Modernisation as Social Theory”. Geoforum. 51: 37 – 55.

7.       Buttel, Frederick H. and Donald R. Field. 2002. “Environmental and Resource Sociology: Introducing a Debate and Dialogue”. Society and Natural Resources. 15: 201 – 203.

8.       Belsky, Jill M. 2002. “Beyond Natural Resource and Environmental Sociology Divide: Insights from a Trans-disciplinary Perspective”. Society and Natural Resources. 15: 267 – 280.

9.       Gold, Kenneth A., David N. Pellow and Allan Schnaiberg. 2004. “Interrogating the Treadmill of Production: Everything you wanted to know about Treadmill but were afraid to ask”. Organisation and Environment. 17 (3): 296 – 316.

10.   Burningham, Kate and Geoff Cooper. 1999. “Being Constructive: Social Constructionism and the Environment”. Sociology. 33 (2): 297 – 316


Module 3: Contesting Space over Nature: Environmentalism and Environmental Movements in Global and Local Perspectives

·       Environmentalism: Emergence and Global History

·       Varieties of Environmentalism – North and South

·       Environmental Justice and Political Ecology

·       New Social Movement Paradigm and Environmental Movements

Suggested Readings:

1.       Guha, R. 2000. Environmentalism: A Global History. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

2.       Guha, R. and J. Martinez-Alier. 1997. Varieties of Environmentalism: Essays North and South. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

3.       Taylor, Dorceta. 2000. “The Rise of Environmental Justice Paradigm: Injustice Framing and the Social Construction of Environmental Discourse”. American Behavioral Scientists. 43 (4): 508 – 580.

4.       Peet, Richard and Michael Watt. (ed). Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development and Social Movements. London: Routledge.

5.       Pet, Richard, Paul Robbins and Micheal Watts. Global Political Ecology. Routledge: New York.

6.       Offe, Claus. “New Social Movements: Challenging the Boundaries of Institutional Politics”. Social Research. 54 (4): 817 – 868.

7.       Roote, Christopher. Environmental Protest Movements in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Module 4: Environmentalism, Environmental Movement and Environmental History of India

·       Towards an Indian Environmental Movement

·       Approaches, Manifestations and Theoretical Strands of Indian Environmental Movement

·       Environmental History of South Asia and India

·       Sites of Environmental Struggle in India: Forest, Water and Global Environment

Suggested Readings:

1.       Gadgil, M. and R. Guha. 1995. Ecology and Equity: Use and Abuse of Nature.  Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books.

2.       Guha, R. 1989. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in Himalayas. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

3.       Gadgil, M. and R. Guha. 1992. This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Gadgil, M and R. Guha. 1994. “Ecological Conflicts and the Environmental Movement in India”. Development and Change. 25: 101 – 136.

4.       Guha, R. 1988. “Ideological Trends in Indian Environmentalism”. Economic and Political Weekly. 23 (49): 2578 – 81.

5.       Diwedi, R. 2001. “Environmental Movements in the Global South: Issues of Livelihood and Beyond”. International Sociology. 16 (1): 11 – 31.

Module 5: Governing the Nature: Natural Resource Management and Local Communities

·       Managing the Commons – Forests, Water, Grazing Land

·       Institutions and Issues of Presence and Participation

·       Gender in Environmental Debate

Suggested Readings:

1.       Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.

2.       Gibson, Clark C.; M. A. McKean and E. Ostrom (eds.) 2000. People and Forests: Communities, Institutions and Governance. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

3.       Singh, K. 1994. Managing Common Pool Resources: Principles and Case Studies. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

4.       McKean, Margaret A. 2000. “Common Property: What is it Good for and What Makes it Good Work”. In Clark C. Gibson, M. A. McKean and E. Ostrom. (ed). People and Forests: Communities, Institutions and Governance. Cambridge: The MIT Press

5.       Agarwal, Bina. 2010. Gender and Green Governance: Political Economy of Women’s Presence Within and Beyond Community Forestry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

6.       Malies, M. And Vandana Shiva. Ecofeminism. Frenwood Publications.

7.       Shiva, Vandana. Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. New Delhi: Kali for Women.

Other Text Books on Environmental Sociology

1.       Bell, Michael Mayerfeld. 2004. An Invitation to Environmental Sociology. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press.

2.       Gould, Kenneth Alan and Tammy L Lewis. 2009. Twenty Lessons in Environmental Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.

3.       Dunlap, R.; Frederick H. Buttel, Peter Dickens and August Gijswijt. (Ed.) 2002. Sociological Theory and the Environment: Classical Foundations, Contemporary Insights. Boston: Rowman& Littlefield. 

4.       Hanningan, John. 1996. Environmental Sociology.Oxan: Routledge.

5.       Hanningan, John. 2006. Environmental Sociology: A Social Constructionist Perspective. Oxan: Routledge.

6.       Barry, John. 1999. Environment and Social Theory. Oxan: Routledge.

Objective of the Course:  This course is designed to provide an opportunity to the students to acquire an understanding of the status of women through the historical period from the ancient period to 17th century in relation to the larger developments in polity, economy and society. Such a study would enable an understanding of    the changes and continuities in the lives of women.  This course would focus on institutions and ideas that determined the position and status of women in Indian civilization. Aspects such as family, society, culture, religion   will be highlighted.


Course Content:  Women’s History, patriarchy, women in ancient period, medieval India, women in public and private realms, ritual and legal status of women.


Evaluation Procedure: There will be three units of evaluation, each of these carrying a maximum of 20 marks and the best two of the three evaluations will be taken into consideration i.e. Maximum of 40 marks for internal evaluation.  The end semester evaluation will carry a maximum of 60 marks. The internal evaluation could comprise of any of the following modes of assessment, (informed to the students in advance, at the beginning of the course), such as, Tests, Term papers, Seminars, Project Reports, Book reviews, and Discussions.


Unit 1.

 1.      What is Women’s History?  The need for women’s history and its reconstruction.

2.      Creation of Patriarchy- A Historical Background. Debates.

3.      Gender and Archeology.

4.      Discussions on Women’s Status in Early India.

5.      Women in the family, Rituals and Samskaras.

6.      Legal Status of Women.

7.      Buddhism and women.


Required readings:


  • Altekar, A.S. 1962,Position of women in Hindu Civilization From pre- historic times to present day,Motilal Benarsi Das, New Delhi.
  • BhattacharjiSukumari , 1990, Motherhood in Ancient India: Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 25, No. 42/43 (Oct. 20-27, pp. WS50-WS57 .
  • BhattacharjiSukumari ,1987, Prostitution in Ancient IndiaSocial Scientist, Vol. 15, No. 2 , Published by: Social Scientist, pp. 32-61.
  • Chakravarti, Uma, 1987, Social dimension of early Buddhism, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
  • Chakravarti,  Uma and Kumkum Roy, 1988,  In Search of Our Past: A Review of the Limitations and Possibilities of the Historiography of Women in Early India: Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 23, No. 18 (Apr. 30, 1988), pp. WS2-WS10
  • Chakravarti, Uma. "Whatever Happened to the Vedic Dasi? Orientalism, Nationalism and Script for the Past." InRecasting women: Essays in Colonial History,Kali for Women, New Delhi.
  • Poonacha, Veena,  2005, ‘Negotiating Historical Spaces: Reclaiming Women’s Agency in the Writing of History’, in Kirit K. Shah (ed.): History and Gender: Some Explorations, pp. 15-33, Rawat Publications, New Delhi.
  • Tharu, Susie and K. Lalita, 1991, Women writing in India,Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
  • Wadley , Susan S. 1977,  Women and the Hindu Tradition Signs, Vol. 3, No. 1, Women and National Development: The Complexities of Change (Autumn, 1977), pp. 113-125 Published by: The University of Chicago Press


 Unit 2:

8.      Impact of Islam on Indian society.

9.      Women and Purdah.

10.  Cloistered spaces and invisible politics-Harems.

11.  Male  bhaktasattitudes towards women

12.  Women and the Bhakti Movement

13.  Akka Mahadevi, Lalded, Meera,  SantToral, Jana bai,Bahina Bai.

14.  Sufism and Women.


Required readings:


  • Findly, Ellison B, 1988,  The Capture of Maryam-uz-Zamānī's Ship: Mughal Women and European Traders , Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 108, No. 2 , Apr. - Jun.,  pp. 227- 238.
  • Gulati, Saroj, 1985, Women and Society, Northern India in 11th and 12thcenturies,Chankya Publications, Delhi.
  • Gupta, Kamala, 2003, Women in Hindu social system, 1206-1707 A.D.Inter India publications, New Delhi.
  • Manushi, Women bhakti poets,No.50, 51,52, Manushi Trust, 1989.
  • Misra, Rekha, 1967, Women in Mughal India, Munshi ram Manohar lal, New Delhi.
  • Pandey, S. M. and Zide, Norman; 1965,  Mīrābāī and Her Contributions to the Bhakti Movement, History of Religions, Vol. 5, No. 1 , The University of Chicago Press
  • Pande, Rekha, 2013, “When devotion opened gendered spaces: Journey through the terrain of Bhakti, 13th to 17th Centuries,Hieron, Studies in Comparative Religion,special issue on, Indian Religions across time and space, Vol. 2, No. XI, Department of Comparative Religion, Comenius University, Brastislava, pp.33-47.
  • Pande, Rekha, 2010, Divine Sounds from the Heart, Singing unfettered in their own voices-The Bhakti Movement and its Women saints (12th to 17th century),Cambridge Scholars Publishing, U.K.
  • Pande, Rekha, 2005, Religious Movements in Medieval India,Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi.


Unit 3:


15.  At the service of the Lord- Devadasis in medieval India.

16.  Prostitutes and concubines in pre modern India

17.  Courtesans in pre-modern India

18.  Women in art

19.  Miniature paintingsDeccani, Garhwal paintings.

20.  Temple paintings


Required readings:


  • Dash, Bhagwan&Basu, R.N;  1968, Methods for Sterilization and Contraception in Ancient and Medieval India, Planning Commission,Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi, Vol 3, No 1, pp 9-24.
  • Kozlowski, Gregory C. 1998,  "Private Lives and Public Piety: Women and the Practice of Islam in Mughal India." In Women in Medieval Islamic World. Edited by Gavin Hambly. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Lal, Ruby, 2003, Rethinking Mughal India: Challenge of a Princess' Memoir,Economic and Political Weekly (special article) January 4. 
  • Musallam, B. F. 1983,  Sex and Society in Islam: Birth Control before the Nineteenth Century.New York, NY: CambridgeUniversity Press,
  • Pande, Rekha ( withS.Jeevanandam),2017,  Devdasis in South India – a Journey from sacred to profane spaces,Kalpaz Publications , Gyan Books, New Delhi
  • Pande, Rekha ( withMeenal Tula ),  2014, Re-Inscribing the Indian Courtesan: A Genealogical Approach, Journal of International Women’s studies, Volume 15, Issue  1, pp.67-82.
  • Pande, Rekha, 2006, Devdasis, in J.S. Grewal ( ed), Religious Movements and Institutions in Medieval India, Vol. VII, Part, 2. in  D.P. Chattopadhyay ( general editor), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, pp.493-504.
  • Pande, Rekha, B.Lavanya, 2004, Miniature paintings in Golconda and the representation of women( 16th to 17th centuries), in Journal Of Interdisciplinary studies in History and Archeology, Vol. 1, No.1, pp73-86.
  • Pande, Rekha, 2004, At the service of the Lord-Temple girls in Medieval Deccan( 11th to 17th centuries), in Deccan Studies,Vol.II, No.2, July-December-pp.25-43.

The course offers a broad overview of the way development is conceptualized and contested in social sciences literature. The emergence and influence of different perspectives on development are located in the respective historical-political conditions. A review of the debates on development allows for a better understanding of contemporary issues in the field.